Linville Gorge, located in the Pisgah National Forest of North Carolina is known generally as the “Grand Canyon of the East.” Being part of the Appalachian mountain range, the mountains which stand on either side of the gorge are some of the world’s most ancient. The Linville River, which carves it’s path Southwards down the base of the ravine, was named Eeseeoh by Cherokee Indians. This has been translated to mean “River of Cliffs.”
My short hike took place along the Eastern side of the cordillera, from “Wolf Pit” where I parked my car North to “Table Rock,” a popular hiking destination where one can see out over the surrounding country at 360 degrees. Having arrived late on the first day, I only hiked to the “Chimneys,” a few miles short of Table Rock. The morning after, I awoke early to catch the sunrise and hike Table Rock before retracing my path South to where I began the day before.
The following photos were taken from different orientations throughout my 24 hour journey through the Linville Wilderness, viewing the gorge laterally to the north and south, as well as looking west to the mountains across the gorge, and over the low-lying country to the east. Enjoy!
Radical Roots is a high-production farm located in Keezletown, VA. They produce hundreds of pounds of fruits, vegetables and herbs per week on only five acres of land, supplying vendors at two farmers markets and serving many CSA members. Although they have USDA Organic certification, they surpass the organic requirements by growing food using sustainable practices that will ensure the future fertility of their plot of land.
I had the opportunity to visit the farm in late July during the height of the growing season. Upon arrival I was met by Adam, the crew leader who I had acquainted with previously at the Burke farmers market. He walked my friend and I past the lagoon at the entrance of the farm to two of the long strips where they were growing head lettuces. There, I encountered four apprentices working hard prepping beds for planting a second or third round of chard. After joining in on the work for a half hour, we stopped for lunch. We walked together to the central gathering ground of the farm, located between the house of the farm owners and the lodging for the apprentices. The table there was set with bowls of salad, sauerkraut, hummus, and other homemade dips. Dave and Lee, the owners of the farm came out to meet us for lunch. Everyone sat together; we talked and laughed as we ate the delicious meal prepared with ingredients from the farm. Dave told me about how the farm started as a homestead built by him and his wife, Lee, and continued to grow overtime as they increased food production and starting hiring people to work on the farm. Amazingly, they didn’t need to expand their property over the past 10 years of increasing fruit and vegetable production.
Before returning to work, one of the apprentices showed me the herb garden out front of the apprentice house where they grew and harvested herbs to dry for tea mixes. I spent the afternoon spreading organic compost, seeding plants and observing the different parts of the farm with Adam. Adam showed me some of the aspects that make Radical Roots a sustainable farm. They use handheld and handmade tools, including soil tillers made by hand by a friend using recycled materials. The farm was set up with many permaculture design elements. Rows of contoured beds were lined up for growing head lettuces, herbs, peppers, melons and cutting flowers. Some of the rows weren’t in use or only had cover crops growing to fix the nutrients in the soil and get turned over as biomass. The garden beds were separated by lines of fruit trees, including Asian pears and apples that were there to catch runoff from the beds. The farm has three to four green houses where they start seedlings and grow hundreds of vine tomatoes, cherry trees, eggplants and other warm climate fruits. They amend the clay soil that’s so characteristic of Virginia with compost from organic, local sources.
At a certain point, my tour of the farm became self-guided. When I reached the north side of the farm, I looked past the fence and was shocked at the stark contrast of the farm next-door. On the other side of the fence there was a wide expanse of barren land with a few cows grazing on short, yellowing grass, and past that were two extremely long, white buildings. Upon inquiring about the other farm to Adam, he explained that it was a corporate factory farm where millions of chickens were raised. He said that commercial corn was brought in by big trucks every week to feed the chickens. He also told me of the horrendous smells that emanated from the neighboring farm when a heavy rainfall would cause the manure and waste to leach.
Sadly, the farm I saw beyond the fence is the spitting image of many farms across the United States and in countries throughout the world. Huge factories are constructed to rear billions of chickens, pigs and cows. Lands are deforested to make space for commercial crops, which are produced relentlessly with chemical fertilizers. Cows are brought into the land to graze after the land cannot produce crops any longer. And in the case of overgrazing, the once fertile and rich soils become barren and dry. In an ecological world increasingly affected by anthropogenic activity, we need to rethink and rebalance our systems of agriculture. We have to produce enough food for the people of today, but we need to ensure that the Earth can still produce food for the children of tomorrow. That’s why Radical Roots sets a superb example for sustainable farming: they utilize both intensive and regenerative farming practices, producing an outstanding amount of fruits and vegetables on land that is kept fertile with organic supplementation, seasonal rotation and rest.
During the fall semester, I joined with Kroka Expeditions, a farm and school based in New England, for a work-study program to Ecuador. Initially, we lived and worked on the domestic farm studying ecology, practicing Spanish, and preparing our expedition skills while forming friendships within the group. After a month and two expeditions – one by mountain bike and the other by canoes – we departed for Ecuador. Through travel and upon arrival, we were immersed among Spanish speakers who helped my Spanish comprehension flourish quickly. After only one week living on the farm in Ecuador, I told one of the Ecuadorian students that I’d learned more in the week than during three years in Spanish class (yo aprendi mas aqui que en tres anos de escuela) – although studying Spanish in school surely helped.
Despite a fair amount of botany, ecology and literature assignments, we spent much of our time working on the farm – in the gardens, working with cows, horses and cuyes (Guinea pigs) to create our livelihoods. The farm is designed to use permaculture (permanent agriculture) principles that mirror the requirements for Organic farming. We studied permaculture throughout the duration of the program, observing the practices used at all the farms we worked on and applying the principles to other aspects of human life.
As we traveled between farms and throughout Ecuador, we got to witness the diverse cultures, landscapes and ecosystems present there. We biked on ridge lines, down valleys and through cities. We hiked through rainforest and tall grass lands. We climbed up cliff faces, rocky mountains and snowy glaciers. And we paddled down ever flowing and changing rivers. Whether at one of the several farms we stayed or on an expedition, food overarched everything else – it created our community while nourishing our bodies. Through food we found a great connectivity to the Earth we traveled and the people we encountered.
Connectivity was the core aspect I took away from the experience. I discovered connections between global communities and across languages. I studied the connections between human activities and climate change. Especially, I felt the connection between myself and the Earth; through planting corn and beans with bare hands and feet, harvesting and preparing fresh ingredients from the gardens, eating and excreting, and composting the waste that returned minerals to the Earth. I observed similar natural cycles reflected in the cosmological understandings of the Ecuadorian Quichua people. Their agricultural calendar defines the flow of life, correlating with the cycles of the moon, of the seasons and of the harvest.
To travel opens opportunities to develop understanding, awareness and empathy for others – for their struggles, their livelihoods and their world views. Developing those feelings bridges gaps, making the world more united and the individual more fulfilled. To travel is the most powerful way to learn.
Below is an online slideshow of pictures from the experience:
“Living food creates lively bodies, lively minds and lively spirits.”
My gardening experience this summer was a sample of self sustenance. Although my garden produced maybe 15% of the fruit and vegetables I ate and a good 75% of my spices and herbs, it was a taste for what it means to grow, harvest and eat food at home.
For me, gardening is the act of fulfilling a relationship with the Creation. A magical strength comes from within the seed of a plant, and the gardener learns to control and respect that strength. Power enters the hands of the gardener when they oversee this magical process, and the gardener ultimately reaps the benefits.
The scents and flavors of sun washed fruits become increasingly intense as they ripen to their peak. Melons and tomatoes fill with juice until they drip or burst when cut open. The satiety of these fruits that are left to ripen without being rushed is something tangible upon their consumption. The nutrients and energy passed on to the consumer from fresh picked, garden grown foods instills a liveliness that washes away all lethargy and sickness. Thank you sun, Earth, air and water for helping these plants grow.
My first summer of gardening, and I’ve fallen in love. Every time I go out to garden in my backyard, it’s a breath of life. I love to work with the plants, but for the most part, it’s the plants that do the work. I set up garden beds, prepared the Earth for them, watched intently as seeds sprouted to young saplings, but now, I just water them as the plants shoot upwards to reach the sun. These photos are an early account of my garden’s growth.
To grow mass amounts of one type of food, commercial farmers use pesticides and herbicides to kill insects and weeds, and fertilizers to increase yields. This is required because there aren’t the checks and balances present in nature that keep the soil healthy and monitor the abundance of pests and weeds. However, runoff of agrochemicals and fertilizers is the greatest cause of water pollution, leading to ocean dead zones and water acidification.
Commercial farming demands a high rate of deforestation to clear land for raising cattle or growing crops. There is a low rate of forest regeneration, as soil is often eroded or degraded until the point of infertility. Practices like slash and burn used in Brazil by illegal cattle ranchers releases high amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. It’s estimated that 80% of tropical deforestation is caused by agriculture, and 11% of GHG emissions are due to deforestation (not to mention the 15% caused by agriculture itself). Habitat loss, decreasing biodiversity, and displacement of local peoples are all consequences of land use conversion too.
These two aspects of commercial agriculture are sufficient to demonstrate the negative impacts that it is having on our Earth. Regardless of our viewpoints regarding the current health of and the importance of the environment, it is important to discuss more sustainable alternatives.
It is my belief that homesteaders and local farmers are able to greatly impact our future. Whether they grow food for self sustenance or for sale, these types of farmers can help lower the environmental footprint of our modern food system.
Homesteaders operate by growing their own crops and hunting for their own meat. Thus, these people have a decreased reliance on commercially grown foods to feed themselves and their families.
Local farmers operate on a smaller scale, meaning that less land is used to grow food, and fewer miles are traversed to bring the food from the farm to the marketplace. Since their is a decreased amount of time between harvesting the food and selling it, farmers don’t have to use preservatives or plastic packaging to keep the food fresh. Also, less energy is used for refrigeration. Because smaller amounts of food are being grown, less land has to be cleared, and the rigorous farming practices used by commercial farmers can be avoided.
How It Works
Farmers markets provide a network for local farms to connect with the community by selling their produce. Frequently, produce at the farmers market is cheaper than at the grocery store. Locally grown food is also healthier, since it is picked at its peak, sold fresh, and doesn’t require the same treatment as foods in the supermarket.
In a country led by consumerism, the easiest and most efficient way to make an impact is by making the right choices about how and where you spend your money. By buying food at the farmers market, you are not only putting money into the local economy, but you are also supporting farmers who will ensure a more sustainable future for our country and for humanity as a whole.
Have you ever been presented challenges that seem impossible to overcome, but when you make the choice to proceed, you end up surpassing the goal and going further than you could ever imagine?
This is gardening for me. I didn’t know that I had a green thumb until last winter. I started out by buying mini cilantro and basil plants at Whole Foods, and placing them by my windowsill to bathe in the sun. They sat there for months before I even considered moving them out of their plastic pots. My first achievement in gardening was when I filled a planter bed with soil from my backyard and moved the herbs into it. I never expected more to come out of my gardening endeavors until a friend urged me to do more. I was overwhelmed on my first trip to the garden center. I had no idea how or when to start seeds, what type of soil to purchase, or how to build a raised garden bed. Over time, with assistance from the same friend, I converted my backyard into a full size garden. I have several raised beds around my backyard filled with a mixture of high quality organic soil. My plants have grown exponentially from their seed stages, and I can now harvest lettuce, tomatoes, peppers, and herbs from my backyard any time I need.
Although it took a good bit of time and work, all the materials I needed were accessible and affordable. The garden is an investment that can have highly valuable returns. The time spent in the garden is an opportunity to slow down, breathe, connect to the Earth and nourish the spirit. In terms of health, a garden can provide fresh produces to supplement a diet. The nutrients and compounds present in foods are at their peak when first harvested, so being able to reduce the time it takes for food to reach the table has great health benefits. Also, the distance homegrown food travels (from the backyard garden to the cutting board) is impeccably small and completely carbon neutral, and when compared to commercially grown foods, provides a strong example of sustainable living.